Wittgenstein’s “Inner and Outer”: Overcoming Epistemic Asymmetry
Keywords:20th century philosophy, Wittgenstein Ludwig, other minds, knowledge, subjectivity, inner and outer, certainty
I offer a reading of those Wittgenstein’s late writings on psychology which, using his terminology, concern the theme of “inner and outer”. I identify three forms of epistemic asymmetry between a subject’s own mind and other minds, discussing Wittgenstein’s treatment of each of these in turn. I intend to show that Wittgenstein is not identifying or solving any single epistemic or conceptual problem of other minds, but criticizing the very general assumption that there is a unique first-personal access to one’s own mind that makes third-personal knowledge epistemically inferior. I conclude by a brief discussion of how my reading enables to understand better Wittgenstein’s relation to behaviorism.
Avramides, A., 2001. Other Minds. London and New York: Routledge.
Bar-On, D. and Long, D.C., 2001. “Avowals and First-person Privilege”. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 311-335.
Broad, C.D.,1980/1925. The Mind and Its Place in Nature. London and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Chalmers, D., 1996. The Conscious Mind. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Fogelin, R., 1976. Wittgenstein. London, Henley and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Hacker, P.M.S., 2005. “Of Knowledge and of Knowing that Someone Is in Pain”. In: Pichler & Säätelä, ed. 2005. Wittgenstein: the Philosopher and His Works. Working Papers from the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen, no. 17, pp. 203-235.
Hume, D., 2000/1739. A Treatise of Human Nature. Edited by David Fate Norton and Mary J. Norton. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hyslop, A., 1995. Other Minds. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
ter Hark, M., 1990. “Wittgenstein’s Metaphysics of the Inner and Outer”. Daimon. Revista Internacional de Filosofia, no. 2, pp. 139-150.
ter Hark, M., 1991. “The Development of Wittgenstein’s Views about the Other Minds Problem”. Synthese, vol. 87, pp. 227-253.
Lagerspetz, O., 2012. “Miltä ananas maistuu? Kokemuksen kuvaamisesta” (”What Does Pineapple Taste Like? On Describing Experiences”). In: Viljanen, Siipi & Sintonen, eds. 2012. Ymmärrys (Understanding). University of Turku: Reports from the Department of Philosophy, vol. 25, pp. 288-295.
Luckhardt, C.G., 1983. “Wittgenstein and Behaviorism”. Synthese, vol. 56, pp. 319-338.
Macarthur, D., 2010. “Wittgenstein and Expressivism”. In: D. Whiting, ed. 2010. The Later Wittgenstein on Language. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 81-95.
Moran, R., 2001. Authority and Estrangement. An Essay on Self-Knowledge. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Revonsuo, A., 2010. Consciousness. The Science of Subjectivity. Hove and New York: Psychology Press.
Robjant, D., 2012. “Learning of Pains; Wittgenstein’s Own Cartesian Mistake at Investigations 246”. Wittgenstein-Studien, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 261-286.
Rodríguez, Á., 2012. “How to Be an Expressivist about Avowals Today”. Nordic Wittgenstein Review 1, pp. 81-101.
Wittgenstein, L., 1969. The Blue and Brown Books. Second edition. Malden, Oxford and Carlton: Blackwell.
Wittgenstein, L., 1982. Last Writings on the Philosophy of Psychology, volume I. Edited by Nyman and von Wright. Translated by Aue and Luckhardt. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wittgenstein, L., 1992. Last Writings on the Philosophy of Psychology, volume II. Edited by Nyman and von Wright. Translated by Aue and Luckhardt. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wittgenstein, L., 1993. “Notes for Lectures on ‘Private Experience’ and ‘Sense Data’”. In: Wittgenstein, 1993. Philosophical Occasions 1912-1951. Edited by Klagge and Nordmann. Indianapolis & Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, pp. 202-288.
Wittgenstein, L., 1980. Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology, volume I. Edited by Anscombe and von Wright. Translated by G.E.M. Anscombe. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wittgenstein, L., 1980. Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology, volume II. Edited by Nyman and von Wright. Translated by Aue and Luckhardt. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wittgenstein, L., 2001/1953. Philosophical Investigations. Translated by G.E.M. Anscombe. Third revised edition. Malden, Oxford and Charlton: Blackwell.
Wittgenstein, L., 1981. Zettel. Edited by Anscombe and von Wright. Translated by G. E.M. Anscombe. Second Edition. Oxford: Blackwell.
NWR uses the Creative Commons license CC-BY.
Vol. 1-3 used CC-BY-NC-SA. The collected works copyright ownership for Vol. 1-2 were shared by Nordic Wittgenstein Society and ontos Verlag/De Gruyter.