Thinking about Animals: James, Wittgenstein, Hearne

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Russell B. Goodman


In this paper I reconsider James and Wittgenstein, not in the quest for what Wittgenstein might have learned from James, or for an answer to the question whether Wittgenstein was a pragmatist, but in an effort to see what these and other related but quite different thinkers can help us to see about animals, including ourselves. I follow Cora Diamond’s lead in discussing a late paper by Vicki Hearne entitled “A Taxonomy of Knowing: Animals Captive, Free-Ranging, and at Liberty” (1995), which draws on Wittgenstein and offers some insights that accord with pragmatist accounts of knowledge.

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GOODMAN, Russell B.. Thinking about Animals: James, Wittgenstein, Hearne. Nordic Wittgenstein Review, [S.l.], p. 9-29, june 2016. ISSN 2242-248X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 nov. 2017.
animals; James William; Wittgenstein Ludwig; Hearne Vicki
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